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Technical data of steel grades

 

Alloy steel - steel, which in addition to carbon are other alloying elements, from several to several tens of percent, is significantly changing the characteristics of the steel.


Alloying elements are added to: 

- increase the hardenability of the steel,

- for strengthening the steel, 

- to change certain physical and chemical properties,

Alloy steels, are usually more expensive, and are used in special applications, where it is economically justified. 

The most commonly used additives in the steels include: 

Nickel
It lowers the temperature of austenitic transformation and the speed of hardening. In practice, this facilitates the process of hardening and increses the depth of hardening. Nickel dissolved in the ferrite strengthens it considerably increasing impact resistance. The addition of nickel in an amount of 0.5% to 4% is added to steel to improve the quenched and tempered steel, and amounts of 8% to 10% for stainless steel. The Polish steel symbols of its addition is the letter N.

Chrome
Addition fo this element results in grain refinement. Increases the hardenability of steel. Increases its strength. Used in tool and special steels. Currently, even in amounts of up to 30%. The Polish steel symbols of his addition means the letter 'H'.

Manganese
Reduces the temperature of the austenitic transformation, and with a content above 15% it stabilizes the alloy and allows to obtain austenitic structure at normal temperatures. Already at contents of 0.8% to 1.4% it significantly increases the tensile strength, impact and abrasion. The Polish steel symbols of its addition is the letter G.

Tungsten
Increases the grain size (lowers the grain volume), increases strength and resistance to abrasion. Large addition of tungsten 8% to 20% increases the resistance of steel to tempering. The Polish steel symbols of its addition is the letter W. 

Molybdenum
Increases the hardenability of steel. Increases strength and reduces brittleness also increases resistance to creep. The Polish steel symbols of his addition means the letter M. 

Vanadium
Increases the fine grain steel and greatly increases its hardness. The Polish steel symbols of its addition is the letter V (F). 

Cobalt
Increases the fine grain steel and greatly increases its hardness. The Polish steel symbols iis the letter K. 

Silicon
Normally regarded as undesirable impurity increases the fragility of steel. It becomes a desirable component in spring steels. Due to the fact that it reduces the energetic loss of current in the steel, it is added in amounts up to 4% to the transformer steel. In symbols, the addition of steel is determined by the letter S. 

Titanium 
The Polish steel symbols of his addition means the letter T. 

Niobium
The Polish steel symbols of his addition means the letters Nb. 

Aluminum
The Polish steel symbols of his addition means the letter A. 

Copper 
It has similar physical properties as pure iron, but it is much more resistant to corrosion and less brittle. Copper content is steadily increasing along with the use of steel scrap with a new steel melting, and is regarded as a desirable admixture. The Polish steel symbols of addition means the letters Cu. 


For a more detailed description, please click on the selected group or species, in the menu on the left.